Wednesday, 24 April 2013

Transfer Facebook Status

Get all Transfer News ( Suarez,Eriksen,Williams, Remy,Carroll ) on Kopites World

An IS student receives most of As from non-IS modules. I should seriously consider transfer.

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Luis Suarez is likely to stay at Liverpool this summer - despite being handed a 10-game ban for biting an opponent.

That's the view of bookmakers Sky Bet, who make Suarez 4/11 to still be at Anfield after the summer transfer window closes on September 1. The Uruguayan is 2/1 to have left the club by then.

Enemies abound in our world. Everyone has enemies. A baby born this very moment already has enemies. Even the dead are not immuned. The greater your level of success and impact the more enemies you will attract. God's Word alerts us to this truth. But we need not fear or be overwhelmed by our enemies. God has always used the enemies of His people to bless them. A Christian was persecuted by his immediate boss in the office. He prayed and it seems as if there was no answer. As a form of punishment his boss orchestrated his transfer to one of the African countries far away from home. Later, the management decided to make him the manager there, a position far higher than his previous post. It was the enemy of Moses that God used to sponsor his
education and upkeep in Egypt. God used the enemies of Joseph to launch him into his destiny. Samaria got provisions during famine through their enemies, the Syrians (2Kgs 7:1-16). Christ's enemies executed God's plan of redemption when they crucified thereby making the redemption of man possible. The Bible says, "Which none of the rulers of this age knew; for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory" (1Cor.2:8). The Bible teaches us how to deal with our enemies so they can become channel of blessings to us instead being agents of disaster. For God to use your enemies to bless you, stop seeing them as a necessary evil that must 'fall down and die'. Stop being bitter against them. Love them as Christ commands (Matt.5:44). Live a life that pleases God (Prov.16:7), follow what is good (1Pet.3:13), be righteous (Prov.13:22). Remember that but for the enemy, many of us would not be at the heights we are in today. Thank God for foes, they keep us on our toes and on the go. Have a great day.

General Knowlegde Quizes And
* CD - Compact Disk
* DVD - Digital Video Disk
* AM - Ante Meredian
* PM - Post Meredian
* AD - AnnoDomini
* BC - Before Christ
* FM - Frequency
* GPRS - General Packet
Radio Service
* USB - Universal Serial
* www - World Wide
* Http - Hypertext Transfer
* HTML - Hypertext Mark
* LAN - Local Area
* SIM - Subsciber Identity
* GSM - Global System for
* WLAN - Wireless Local
* SQL - Structured Query
* XSS/CSS - Cross Site
* LFI - Link Fragmentation
and Interleaving

HY koi jawab tou do in baatoun ka ???

From My side Fan Of PTI Imran Khan...

Reasons not to vote for PML-N ..
1. Liars (Jedda Contract One Example)
2. Hudabiya Paper Mills Scandal (Reference
Pending in NAB)
3. Ittefaq Foundries Scandal (Loan
4. Money Laundering (illegal transfers) Ishaq Dar’s statement
5. NRO
6. Record Lowest GDP in both tenures (90 &
7. Tax Evaders
8. Used Public Money for personal projection
9. Fake Degree Holders
10. Defaulters of Banks & LESCO
11. Supported Zardari in order to get next
term guaranteed
12. Criminal Act of keeping 1.14 Million kids away from schools in Punjab
13. No action taken against Fake Medicine
producers (Haneef Abbasi PIC Scandal)
14. PTCL, Wapda & Internet Defaulters in
Assembly (Including Ch. Nisar)
15. Sana Ullah Zahri President PMLN Balochistan abusing ladies in Press Conf
(Farzana Raja)
16. Access to clean water in Punjab is
decreased by 4% in last tenure of PML-N.
17. Infant mortality rate in Punjab has
increased in last 5 years. 18. Revenue of Punjab has decreased in
last 5 years.
19. Number of children without access to
education has increased in last 5 years.
Whereas Punjab Govt. was spending money
on Laptops & Danish Schools. (11.5 million) 20. Infrastructure of Govt. schools in Punjab
has been destroyed, 31% of schools
without washrooms.
21-not proper funding for rescue 1122,
22- no fuel for petroling police that
resulted in increase in crime ratio 23- no funds for advancement of technical
research in universities & colleges
24- criminal and cruel cut on south punjab
25- no solution to the load shedding
problem in punjab (it is provincial matter as well after 18th amendment)
26- transfer of funds to Mansehra, the
constituency of Cap Safdar (Son in law of
Nawaz Sharif)
27- friendly nodes with terrorist groups
28- no care of institute building 29- no 3rd party audit of mega projects in
30- to support milk project of Hamza
Shahbaz, Punjab Govt used police to
counter the other Dairy Farms in
surrounding areas of Lahore 31- family limited party (Nawaz to Shahbaz
then Hamza and Maryam)
32- 3000 times increase in personal assets
during their tenure

German football has peaked; as one fan boldly wrote on a social network. True, we all know the technical ability and quality of both Bayern and Dortmund. But, their classy display and thumping of the Spanish super powers, is difficult to fathom for most football enthusiasts.
First, it was Bayern’s were oiled machine that gave Barcelona, a dose of their own medicine. Some distraught Barca Fans argued that the second and third goal shouldn’t have stood; which is true. But then again, Bayern had two legitimate penalty claims turned down by the official. The Germans were by far the better team on the night. Barcelona on the other hand, should learn their lesson and be more pragmatic in their transfer dealings in the summer. A quality central defender is a must, and also a centre forward that is capable of leading the line effectively.

Dortmund vs. Real Madrid
Jose Mourinho admittance that “the best team won” is a statement we are quite familiar with. The way he says that, might lead you to affirm that his team had a bad day. We heard something similar against Manchester United in the round of 16, after a poor performance at Old Trafford. You then ask yourself, do Madrid always play poorly against quality opposition in Europe? Inasmuch as the Les Merengues has a winning spirit and desire, that atimes is so intimidating for the opposition; but then, the quality of their team play is below par. Madrid’s main game plan is to get the ball quickly to their speedy attackers, to out-run the opposition defense. And with the all-round finishing ability of CR7, their opponents have proven to have no answer.
But Manchester united and Dortmund have proved to be an exception; as their organization, work ethics, understanding and unity have exposed Madrid in devastating style. Teams are built not fixed, and is discomforting to state that—despite the millions invested in attacking talents, Mourinho’s team still plays blandly.
The Germans have now played against Madrid three times this season, and the results states: won two, drew one, eight goals scored and four conceded. The results tell the whole story, and clearly show Dortmund’s superiority to Madrid. This was not Madrid having a bad day; this was a series of lesson being taught by Jurgen Klopp’s well drilled team-- With emphasis on team play, organization and technical ability.
As the “special One” nears his inevitable exit, Florentino Perez should hire a coach, who can and should set up a team that can thrill the fans and play more like a unit; utilizing the vast world class individual ability, and potentials in the team, because that is the Madrid we know. Winning is imperative in the game, but it mustn’t come before style and philosophy in the order of priority.

United’s January signing Wilfried
Zaha admits that he had always
wanted to go to Arsenal and that
he is mad a Gooner. Signed by
United during the winter transfer
window, Zaha is currently playing
with Crystal palace on loan to try
and help them land a spot in the
The winger was connected with
Arsenal for a long time before
being snatched by Sir Alex
Ferguson who paid a
hefty £15million to lure Crystal
Palace into selling their youth
Talking about Arsenal and his
move to United, The winger
told The Sun:
“It was
always Arsenal, Arsenal, Arsenal,Arsenal in
terms of where I could be going.
“I have always
supported Arsenal. I did not
expect United to come in but
they did. Arsenal are a good team
but United are one of the best in
the world.”
He took the English media by a
storm with his captivating
performances around Christmas
period last year and has been
one of the highly rated
youngsters in England ever since.
United fans will have a chance to
look at him closely when he
arrives at Old Trafford after the
current season ends and he may
start off things at United’s Pre-
season friendlies in Asia.
This is not the first time that an
Arsenal fan has opted to join
Manchester United, Chris
Smalling did the exact thing two
years ago when he left Fulham to
join the Premier league
Will Arsenal regret not signing
one of their ‘own’?

The phrase “only begotten Son” occurs in John 3:16, which reads in the King James Version as, "For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life." The phrase "only begotten" translates the Greek word monogenes. This word is variously translated into English as "only," "one and only," and "only begotten."

It's this last phrase ("only begotten" used in the KJV, NASB and the NKJV) that causes problems. False teachers have latched onto this phrase to try to prove their false teaching that Jesus Christ isn't God; i.e., that Jesus isn't equal in essence to God as the Second Person of the Trinity. They see the word "begotten" and say that Jesus is a created being because only someone who had a beginning in time can be "begotten." What this fails to note is that "begotten" is an English translation of a Greek word. As such, we have to look at the original meaning of the Greek word, not transfer English meanings into the text.

So what does monogenes mean? According to the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (BAGD, 3rd Edition), monogenes has two primary definitions. The first definition is "pertaining to being the only one of its kind within a specific relationship." This is the meaning attached to its use in Hebrews 11:17 when the writer refers to Isaac as Abraham's "only begotten son." Abraham had more than one son, but Isaac was the only son he had by Sarah and the only son of the covenant.

The second definition is "pertaining to being the only one of its kind or class, unique in kind." This is the meaning that is implied in John 3:16. In fact, John is the only New Testament writer who uses this word in reference to Jesus (see John 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9). John was primarily concerned with demonstrating that Jesus was the Son of God (John 20:31), and he uses this word to highlight Jesus as uniquely God's Son—sharing the same divine nature as God—as opposed to believers who are God's sons and daughters through faith.

The bottom line is that terms such as "Father" and "Son," that are descriptive of God and Jesus, are human terms used to help us understand the relationship between the different Persons of the Trinity. If you can understand the relationship between a human father and a human son, then you can understand, in part, the relationship between the First and Second Persons of the Trinity. The analogy breaks down if you try to take it too far and teach, as some Christian cults (such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses), that Jesus was literally "begotten" as in “produced” or “created” by God the Father. ♥

If I do school part time, I'll increase my transfer date by one year. Ill have a fully developed business by the time i transfer, and can utilize my studies directly on my website.

If I don't go part time, Ill transfer a year sooner, but wont have any time to run a business until i graduate 2 years later.

Im going part time

Genting Daytrip
Allpark : RM140/adult
Outdoor Park : RM125/adult
Indoor Park : RM105/adult

Minimum booking : 5 person

-Return transfer (1 pick up point only)
-Entrance fee

Please call 0326941761 for more information.

Imagine,Mario Gotze moves to Bayern at Fee of £37mil ridiculosly b4 transfer window starts

Local Jobs Inside Saudi Arabia - 25/4/2013.
Waiters ,Helpers , Cooks, Chinese Chef Needed at a Pakistani Rest. valid iqama required....Region: Jeddah

A leading Pakistani restaurant requires the following:
1. Waiters 10
2. Bussers/Helpers 6
3.Cooks 5
4. Chinese Chef 1
5. Tandoori Bread Maker 2
6. Poori and Paratha Maker 2
7. Karahi Expert 2
8. Dishwasher 4

Candidates with Experience and good work ethics shall be offered attractive salary.
The restaurant shall take care of the iqama transfer and all government fees if the candidate meets the requirements and succeeds in the interview and probationary period.

AMAZING ladakh
6 Nights / 7 Days - Leh Airport Pick up & Leh Airport Drop
Validity:- May To October 4 Nights Leh - 1 Night Nubra - 1 Night Pangong
Destinations Covered:- Leh, Monasteries, Nubra Valley, Sham Valley & Pangong Lake

Day 01:- Arrive Leh
Arrival Leh Kushok Bakula Airport (This must be one of the Most Sensational Flights in The World. On a clear day from one side of the aircraft can be seen in the distance the peaks of K2, Nanga Parbat, Gasherbrum and on the other side of the aircraft, so close that you feel you could reach out and touch it, is the Nun Kun massif.) Upon arrival you will met by our representative and transfer to Hotel for Check in. Complete day for rest and leisure to acclimatize followed by Welcome tea or Coffee at the Hotel.
Evening Visit to Leh Palace, Shanti Stupa & Leh Market. Dinner & Overnight at Hotel.

Day 02:- Leh To Sham Valley (75 Kms / 4 Hrs)
After breakfast you drive downstream along the River Indus on Leh – Kargil Highway. Enroute visiting Gurudwara Patthar Sahib Nestled deep in the Himalayas, A drive of another 4 km took us to Magnetic Hill which defies the law of gravity & further Driving through a picturesque landscape we reached the Confluence Of The Indus And Zanskar River, Just before Saspul a road to the right takes you for your visit to the Likir Monastery, Likir is one of the most active monasteries in the region. As you drive up to the monastery a recently installed colossal gilded image of the Maitreya out in the open is one of the most impressive sights in Ladakh.
After visiting the Monastery you continue your drive along the River Indus to or Uletokpo or Tingmosgang enroute visiting
Ridzong Monastery, there is the option to walk up to the Monastery for those that wish to do so. Hidden at the end of a steep valley, the first view of the Monastery is dramatic. After visiting above places we drive further and check in at our camp / hotel for overnight stay.

Day 03:- Sham Valley To Leh Via Lamayuru (180 Kms / 05 - 06 Hrs)
Post breakfast you drive to the 11th Century Lamayuru Monastery enroute visiting the mesmerizing Moon Landscapes (you will believe why the name of this area is Moonland. Exactly the same formations of Land are visible as on the moon), Lamayuru is spectacularly located along the valley plain and surrounded by mountains on all sides. On your return drive to Leh you first visit the Alchi Gompa. The complex of temples located within the village is the most celebrated of Ladakh’s monasteries and dates back to the 11th century. After Alchi you proceed to Basgo, which lies astride the road to Leh. The jagged skyline of the ruins of the 15th century capital of Ladakh dominates the village of Basgo. Finally you arrive back at Leh for an overnight stay at your Hotel.

Day 04:- Leh To Pangong Lake (140 Kms / 4 - 5 Hrs - One Way)
After an early breakfast we leave for Pangong Lake enroute visiting Shey Palace, The ancient capital of Ladakh & 3 Idiots Rancho School & further 5 Kms Driving through a picturesque landscape we reach Thiksey an impressive complex rising tier upon tier on a hill above the village. After visiting above two monasteries we drive further towards Changla Pass 5486 Mtrs. The long easy ascent takes you to Changla pass through its winding roads passing through Sakti Village. Stop at the Changla Pass for a quick photograph session and drive down to the village of Tangtse, where you can relax for a cup of tea. Leaving Tangtse for Pangong you pass through few small villages of Changthang and finally you can have a sudden view of the Pangong lake situated at 14,000 feet (4,267 m). This famous blue brackish Lake of Pangong is 5/6 Kms wide and over 133 Kms long with half of its running the other side of the "Indo China Border". One rarely feels so close to nature and environment and the scenery is unforgettable. After the success of 3 Idiots, this beautiful natural location has attracted more tourists from all over the world. Upon arrival we check in at our Camp Near Pangong lake. Dinner & Overnight at the Camp.

Day 05:- Pangong Lake To Leh (140 Kms / 6 Hrs)
Morning at leisure to explore the beauty of lake and later we drive back to leh enroute visiting Hemis Gompa, the largest monastic foundation of Drukpa Kagyu Order of Tibetan Buddhism. Drive further to Leh and check in at our hotel for Overnight

Day 06:- Leh - Excursion To Khardungla Top - 18,390 Ft. (39 Kms / 02 Hrs One Way)
Post Breakfast we drive to Khardung La (The Highest Motorable Road in The World) at 5,602 Mtrs. / 18,390 Ft, around 39 km from Leh. From the pass, one can see all the way south over the Indus valley to seemingly endless peaks and ridges of the Zanskar range, and north to the giants of the Saser massif. The views from the top of the pass are amazing.

Return to the hotel on time for lunch. In the afternoon you can stroll around the market place for some last minute souvenir shopping. Dinner & Overnight at hotel.

Day 07:- Depart Leh (Fly Out)
Tour concludes. Aatithya Trips Pvt. Ltd. thanks you for your patronage and ensures a punctual transfer to Domestic Airport to catch the flight for your onward Destination.

good night transfer data geared, to fly friday, access talent

Whats on my mind shady ass people..trying to take the only good this we have,,I am fucking pissed!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!...........Barbie Lynn Bush I will detest this BS..This is the only karaoke place we have..if u don't want to don't..but to Take away the only thing..that some people hold on to..and i KNOW this lady..met her on No surprise to me.. we can not all be a QUEEN...and those who are sue happy will bite them in the ass..if u don't like what I am saying KMA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!..and for the record I stopped entering contest.Due to the same peroson..who is makin these alagations?.BECAUSE of bullying:) these people have there groups..and when they don't like u (((contestants)))..ur maybe I should make a SUIT. too!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

decide for yourself
Judge finds Lawsuit against SingSnap and CEO Trevor McGuire “frivolous”
by singsnapsucks

On August 25th, 2011 a lawsuit was filed against founder and CEO Trevor McGuire as well as three other members of the SingSnap website. This lawsuit filed in Pennsylvania Federal Court by Diane Patchen and her fiancé Robert Smik, alleged, among other things, a conspiracy to defame and copyright infringement. Eatsleepmusic Corporation, owner of SingSnap, was later added as a defendant.

Diane Patchen was banned from the SingSnap community in February of 2010 and soon after made numerous inaccurate posts around the web regarding Mr. McGuire and his business. Filing this lawsuit against him was, Mr. McGuire believes, the culmination of her vendetta. As soon as the lawsuit was filed, it was publicized on dozens of Internet complaint boards by anonymous posters.

McGuire and SingSnap immediately retained counsel to fight these ridiculous and baseless allegations.

On September 27th, 2012 the Judge William H. Yohn Jr. of the United States District Court DISMISSED all of the Plaintiff’s claims and Denied the motion for severance and transfer of the claims as “not in the interests of justice” because the claims were “frivolous”. The parties later resolved the litigation, including motions by McGuire and Eatsleepmusic Corporation seeking sanctions and their attorneys’ fees, to the satisfaction of all parties.

15 KAS officers transferred....

JAMMU, Apr 25 (KNN): The State Government has ordered transfer and posting of 15 KAS officers with immediate effect.
Abdul Aziz Bhat, Programme Officer ICDS Project Baramulla is transferred and posted as Additional Deputy Commissioner Kupwara vice Ravinder Kumar Bhat who has been transferred and posted as Additional Secretary Labour and Employment.
Majid Khalil Ahmad Drabu, Additional Secretary PDD (HRM Branch), is transferred and posted as Additional Secretary Agriculture Production Department vice Muzaffar Ahmad Peer who is transferred and posted as Additional DC Handwara vice Mohd Hussain Mir.
Mohd Hussain Mir is transferred and posted as Joint Director Tourism Kashmir against an available vacancy while Ghulam Rasool Mir, Additional Secretary Forest Department, is transferred and posted as Additional Secretary Social Welfare Department.
Jatinder Singh, Additional DC Poonch, is transferred and posted as Director Land Management JDA against an available vacancy while Bashir Ahmad Khan, Joint Director Information Kashmir is transferred and posted as Joint Commissioner Srinagar Municipal Corporation.
Deepika Kumari Sharma, Additional Secretary in the office of Resident Commissioner J&K Government at New Delhi, is transferred and posted as Deputy Labour Commissioner New Delhi.
Mohinder Singh, Additional Secretary PWD (R&B) is transferred and posted as Additional Secretary PDD (HRM branch) vice Majid Khalil Ahmad Drabu while Mohd Yusuf Mir, Additional Secretary Animal and Sheep Husbandry Department, is transferred and posted as Programme Officer ICDS Project Baramulla vice Abdul Aziz Bhat.
Indu Kotwal Chib, Additional Secretary RDD and Panchayati Raj, is transferred and posted as Joint Director Hospitality and Protocol Jammu against an available vacancy.
Rashida Shahin, under order of transfer as Deputy Director District Employment and Counselling Centre Srinagar, is posted as Development Officer Handicrafts (Non-Textile) Srinagar against an available vacancy.
Rifat Kohli, General Manager JKTDC Jammu is recalled and shall await further orders of adjustment in GAD while Jahangir Hashmi, Deputy Secretary in Chief Minister’s Monitoring Cell, is transferred and posted as Deputy Secretary Planning and Development Department.
Besides, the Government also ordered transfer of Rakesh Kumar, Principal Private Secretary with Excise Commissioner and posted him as Special Assistant in the Personal Section of the Minister for PHE, Irrigation and Flood Control.
Kamla Devi, under order of transfer as Project Officer Water-shed Reasi, is posted as Collector Power Grid Corporation of India Jammu against an available vacancy.

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Liverpool striker Luis Suarez, 26,will never play for the club again after being given a 10-match ban and will try to force a summer exit from Anfield


Dortmund hope to keep striker- Lewandowski

Borussia Dortmund hope to keep hold of Robert Lewandowski after the Polish striker scored all four goals in their 4-1 win against Real Madrid.
Lewandowski, 24, is out of contract at the end of the 2013-14 season and has been linked with a move this summer.
But, speaking after the Champions League semi-final win, Dortmund manager Jurgen Klopp said: "I do not have the feeling that Robert is on the run and we are not the ones to send him away.
"Let's wait and see what happens next."
Lewandowski became the first player to score a Champions League hat-trick against Real Madrid in a superb individual performance, with his third goal the highlight of a great night for the hosts at the Westfalenstadion.
The striker got hold of Marcel Schmelzer's effort, took a touch to kill the ball, dragged it out of defender Pepe's reach and smashed an unstoppable shot into the top corner.
Klopp said: "This performance will definitely go down in history.
"There are always the same films in the Borusseum [the club's museum]. (external) You will see Lewa's four goals there soon."
One of the clubs linked with a move for Lewandowski are new Bundesliga champions Bayern Munich, who confirmed the £31.5m summer signing of Dortmund forward Mario Gotze on Tuesday.
But general manager Hans-Joachim Watzke played down the prospect of Dortmund losing two key players to their rivals in one season.
"Robert has a contract until 2014 and there is no exit clause like with Mario Gotze," said Watzke.
"It is our explicit wish to keep him until 2014. That is why we are saying no to a transfer fee."
Lewandowski has scored 33 goals in 42 appearances for Dortmund this season, and has 71 goals in 130 games in total for the club. The striker has 53 caps for Poland, scoring 17 goals.
Related to this story

Boss asks me " would you like to transfer to another position since its open" me " nah, I'd rather stay here and make everyone miserable!!"

Sitting in ICU with Heidi Delos, Amanda Delos,and Terry Delos waiting for the transfer to Albany Med. Dr. thinks he is septic and they are giving him meds to try and raise his blood pressure.

1 bed room town house in Jumeriah village circle built up area 1850 and plot size 1937 sqft (2 units) selling price 1.2 million each net to owner

Fully furnished 1 bed room hall in Greece cluster L-12 1st floor rented 30k by 1 chq selling price 355k net to owner

1 bed room hall in Greece cluster with out balcony k-8 selling price 345k net to owner

1 bed room hall in Greece cluster L-9 2nd floor vacant on transfer selling price 350k net to owner

Shop in CBD full building with reserved parking very good location 585 sqft net area rented 45k/4 chqs selling price 550k net to owner

Vacant shop in China cluster front side 473 sqft net area selling price 335k net to owner

studio in international city phase 2 Rits Residence with reserved parking rented on
22k/6 chqs till December 2013 selling price 265k net to owner

Extra Large studio in Persia cluster N-9 building 559 sqft net selling price 270k net

Feel free to contact for more assistance Akram Jorge 055-5014552/055-9548017 BRN 25195 Triangle city real estate

A true teacher is one who can immediately come down to the level of the student,and transfer his soul to the students'soul and see through and understand through his mind.

#34: All my academic adviser did for me was tell me I wasn't good enough to transfer into what I wanted to do. SO FUCK YOU UCR ACADEMIC ADVISERS.

waiting at Sydney airport for transfer flight back to N.Z.... cant believe our S.A trip is over ?? ;-( Was great though and had a blast...will always love Africa ;-)

I look at my latest work schedule and I seriously wanna put in my two-weeks notice or transfer somewhere else-- somewhere, where HARD WORK, DEDICATION, and SALESMANSHIP mean something to the management team! I've been scheduled a "breaker" 2 of the last 3 Saturdays, and it's really bugging me! I produce on a regular basis for that damn restaurant, but it really doesn't seem to count for very much.

How can we transfer our contacts from Nokia x2-02 Mobile to Computer

Classic insult
1 Ladki perfume laga k bus pe chadi
Ladke ne comment pas kiya
Aaj kal phinel ka use kuch zyada hi hota hai
Ladki boli
Fir bhi cockroach picha nhi chorte...:p :O

Stiff neck refers to an instance when one experiences discomfort or pain when trying to turn or move the neck. The muscle that is most commonly involved in cases of stiff neck is the levator scapulae.[1] The cause of a stiff neck may be related to muscle spasms, or excessive muscle tone, of the muscles controlling the neck. This condition is known as Torticollis.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that weaken themusculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion.[1][2] Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.[3]
In the 1860s, descriptions of boys who grew progressively weaker, lost the ability to walk, and died at an early age became more prominent in medical journals. In the following decade, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of thirteen boys with the most common and severe form of the disease, which now carries his name—Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
It soon became evident that the disease had more than one form. The other major forms are Becker, limb-girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal,distal, and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.[4] These diseases predominately affect males, although females may be carriers of the disease gene. Most types of MD are multi-system disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal system, nervous system, endocrine glands, eyes and brain.[4]
Apart from the nine major types of muscular dystrophy listed above, several MD-like conditions have also been identified. Normal intellectual, behavioral, bowel and Salman Khanual function is noticed in individuals with other forms of MD and MD-like conditions.[5][6] MD-affected individuals with susceptible intellectual impairment are diagnosed through molecular characteristics but not through problems associated with disability.[7] However, a third of patients who are severely affected with DMD may have cognitive impairment, behavioral, vision and speech problems.[8][9]

Human abdomen
Functionally, the human abdomen is where most of the alimentary tract is placed and so most of the absorption and digestion of food occurs here. The alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, ileum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending, transverse and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Other vital organs inside the abdomen include the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas and the spleen.
The abdominal wall is split into the posterior (back), lateral (sides), and anterior (front) walls.
The transversus abdominis muscle is flat and triangular, with its fibers running horizontally. It lies between the inner oblique and the underlying transversalis fascia. It originates from Poupart's ligament, the inner lip of the ilium, the lumbar fascia and the inner surface of the cartilages of the six lower ribs. It inserts into the linea alba behind the rectus abdominis.
The rectus abdominis muscles are long and flat. The muscle is crossed by three tendinousintersections called the linae transversae. The rectus abdominis is enclosed in a thick sheath formed, as described above, by fibers from each of the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. They originate at the pubis bone, run up the abdomen on either side of the linea alba, and insert into the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs.
The pyramidalis muscle is small and triangular. It is located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectus abdominis. It originates at the pubic bone and is inserted into the linea alba halfway up to theumbilicus.

Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.[1] The trunk includes the thorax and abdomen.
Major organs
Most critical organs are housed within the trunk. In the upper chest, the heart and lungsare protected by the rib cage, and the abdomen contains the majority of organs responsible for digestion: the liver, which respectively produces bile necessary for digestion; the large and small intestines, which extract nutrients from food; the anus, from which fecal wastes are excreted; the rectum, which stores feces; the gallbladder, which stores and concentrates bile and produces chyme; the ureters, which passesurine to the bladder; the bladder, which stores urine; and the urethra, which excretes urine and passes sperm through the seminal vesicles. Finally, the pelvic region houses both the male and female reproductive organs.
Major muscle groups
The trunk also harbours many of the main groups of muscles in the body, including the:
• pectoral muscles
• abdominal muscles
• lateral muscle
The organs and muscles etc. are innervated by various nerves, mainly originating fromthoracic vertebrae segments. For instance, the cutaneous innervation is provided by:
• Ventral cutaneous branches
• Lateral cutaneous branches
• Dorsal cutaneous branches

Upper limb

The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in an animal extending from thedeltoid region to the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.[1]
Musculoskeletal system
Shoulder girdle
Main article: Shoulder girdle
The shoulder girdle[4] or pectoral girdle,[5] composed of the clavicle and the scapula, connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton through the sternoclavicular joint (the only joint in the upper limb that directly articulates with the trunk), a ball and socket joint supported by the subclavius muscle which acts as a dynamic ligament. While this muscle prevents dislocation in the joint, strong forces tend to break the clavicle instead. Theacromioclavicular joint, the joint between the acromion process on the scapula and the clavicle, is similarly strengthened by strong ligaments, especially the coracoclavicular ligament which prevents excessive lateral and medial movements. Between them these two joints allow a wide range of movements for the shoulder girdle, much because of the lack of a bone-to-bone contact between the scapula and the thoracic cage. The pelvic girdle is, in contrast, firmly fixed to the axial skeleton, which increases stability and load-bearing capabilities. [5]
The mobility of the shoulder girdle is supported by a large number of muscles. The most important of these are muscular sheets rather than fusiform or strap-shaped muscles and they thus never act in isolation but with some fibres acting in coordination with fibres in other muscles.[5]
of shoulder girdle excluding the glenohumeral joint[3]
Migrated from head
Trapezius, sternocleidomastoideus, omohyoideus
Rhomboideus major, rhomboideus minor, levator scapulae
Subclavius, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
[edit]Shoulder joint
The glenohumeral joint (colloquially called the shoulder joint) is the highly mobile ball and socket joint between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus. Lacking the passive stabilisation offered by ligaments in other joints, the glenohumeral joint is actively stabilised by the rotator cuff, a group of short muscles stretching from the scapula to the humerus. Little inferior support is available to the joint and dislocation of the shoulder almost exclusively occurs in this direction. [6]
The large muscles acting at this joint perform multiple actions and seemingly simple movements are often the result of composite antagonist and protagonist actions from several muscles. For example, pectoralis major is the most important arm flexor and latissimus dorsi the most important extensor at the glenohumeral joint, but, acting together, these two muscles cancel each other's action leaving only their combined medial rotation component. On the other hand, to achieve pure flexion at the joint the deltoid and supraspinatus must cancel the adduction component and the teres minor and infraspinatus the medial rotation component of pectoralis major. Similarly, abduction (moving the arm away from the body) is performed by different muscles at different stages. The first 10° is performed entirely by the supraspinatus, but beyond that fibres of the much stronger pectoralis major are in position to take over the work. Furthermore, to achieve the full 180° range of abduction the arm must be rotated medially and the scapula most be rotate about itself to direct the glenoid cavity upward. [6]
of shoulder joint proper[3]
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis, deltoideus, latissimus dorsi, teres major
Pectoralis major, coracobrachialis
Main article: Arm
The arm proper (brachium), sometimes called the upper arm,[4] the region between the shoulder and the elbow, is composed of the humerus with the elbow joint at its distal end.
The elbow joint is a complex of three joints — the humeroradial, humeroulnar, and superior radioulnar joints — the former two allowing flexion and extension whilst the latter, together with its inferior namesake, allows supination and pronation at the wrist. Triceps is the major extensor and brachialis and biceps the major flexors. Biceps is, however, the major supinator and while performing this action it ceases to be an effective flexor at the elbow. [7]
of the arm[3]
Triceps brachii, anconeus
Brachialis, biceps brachii
Main article: Forearm
The forearm (antebrachium),[4] composed of the radius and ulna; the latter is the main distal part of the elbow joint, while the former composes the main proximal part of the wrist joint.
Most of the large number of muscles in the forearm are divided into the wrist, hand, and finger extensors on the dorsal side (back of hand) and the ditto flexors in the superficial layers on the ventral side (side of palm). These muscles are attached to either the lateral or medial epicondyle of the humerus. They thus act on the elbow, but, because their origins are located close to the centre of rotation of the elbow, they mainly act distally at the wrist and hand. Exceptions to this simple division are brachioradialis — a strong elbow flexor — and palmaris longus — a weak wrist flexor which mainly acts to tense the palmar aponeurosis. The deeper flexor muscles are extrinsic hand muscles; strong flexors at the finger joints used to produce the important power grip of the hand, whilst forced extension is less useful and the corresponding extensor thus are much weaker. [8]
Biceps is the major supinator (drive a screw in with the right arm) and pronator teres and pronator quadratus the major pronators (unscrewing) — the latter two role the radius around the ulna (hence the name of the first bone) and the former reverses this action assisted by supinator. Because biceps is much stronger than its opponents, supination is a stronger action than pronation (hence the direction of screws). [8]
of the forearm[3]
(Superficial) extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, (deep) supinator, abductor pollicis longus,extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis
(Superficial) pronator teres, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, (deep) flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus
Brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis
Main article: Wrist
The wrist (carpus),[4] composed of the carpal bones, articulates at the wrist joint (or radiocarpal joint) proximally and thecarpometacarpal joint distally. The wrist can be divided into two components separated by the midcarpal joints. The small movements of the eight carpal bones during composite movements at the wrist are complex to describe, but flexion mainly occurs in the midcarpal joint whilst extension mainly occurs in the radiocarpal joint; the latter joint also providing most of adduction and abduction at the wrist.[9]
How muscles act on the wrist is complex to describe. The five muscles acting on the wrist directly — flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and palmaris longus — are accompanied by the tendons of the extrinsic hand muscles (i.e. the muscles acting on the fingers). Thus, every movement at the wrist is the work of a group of muscles; because the four primary wrist muscles (FCR, FCU, ECR, and ECU) are attached to the four corners of the wrist, they also produce a secondary movement (i.e. ulnar or radial deviation). To produce pure flexion or extension at the wrist, these muscle therefore must act in pairs to cancel out each others secondary action. On the other hand, finger movements without the corresponding wrist movements require the wrist muscles to cancel out the contribution from the extrinsic hand muscles at the wrist. [9]
Main article: Hand
The hand (manus),[4] the metacarpals (in the hand proper) and the phalanges of the fingers, form the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP, including the knuckles) and interphalangeal joints (IP).
Of the joints between the carpus and metacarpus, the carpometacarpal joints, only the saddle-shaped joint of the thumb offers a high degree of mobility while the opposite is true for the metacarpophalangeal joints. The joints of the fingers are simple hinge joints. [9]
The primary role of the hand itself is grasping and manipulation; tasks for which the hand has been adapted to two main grips — power grip and precision grip. In a power grip an object is held against the palm and in a precision grip an object is held with the fingers, both grips are performed by intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles together. Most importantly, the relatively strong thenar muscles of the thumb and the thumb's flexible first joint allow the special opposition movement that brings the distal thumb pad in direct contact with the distal pads of the other four digits. Opposition is a complex combination of thumb flexion and abduction that also requires the thumb to be rotated 90° about its own axis. Without this complex movement, humans would not be able to perform a precision grip. [10]
In addition, the central group of intrinsic hand muscles give important contributions to human dexterity. The palmar and dorsal interossei adduct and abduct at the MCP joints and are important in pinching. The lumbricals, attached to the tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and extensor digitorum communis (FDC), flex the MCP joints while extending the IP joints and allow a smooth transfer of forces between these two muscles while extending and flexing the fingers. [10]
of the hand[3]
Lumbricals, dorsal interossei, palmar introssei
Abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis
Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi, palmaris brevis

Barcelona star will be allowed to walk away on a free transfer next summer! Read more:

In transfer news
Outgoing United chief executive David Gill has warned Manchester City should expect a ‘summer transfer battle’.

PSG Director Edinson Cavani Has Rubished Reports That They Are SEt To Sign Napoli's Edinson Cavani.

Manchester City's Kolo Toure Has Confirmed That He Will Be Moving Out Of Etihad But Said He Wants To Stay In England.

Antonio Valencia Has Hinted That He Wants To End His Career At Old Trafford.

Progect OverLand is comeing allong, just doing the small stuff now sence the lift and 8.8 install, still undecided about paint color. Hope to get some more of this small stuff knocked out over the next few days. The grand is down for the count, getting front axle, transfer case and 3 cabanets full of parts. Dont know what ill be takeing to URE but ill be there in style. On a side note on the list of places to be are the Locked and loaded 4x4s car was with James Kaps, filbert mud fest and wrapping up may with the URE run. Thats all for tonight.

great fix the transfer case take if for a drive and sounds like a gear is missing a few teeth when i put the clutch in at 60km'h, time for a rebuild

Liverpool football club today confirmed skipper Steven Gerrard is likely to undergo surgery on a shoulder injury during the summer.


Article 5
Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
1. The jurisdiction of the Court shall be limited to the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole. The Court has jurisdiction in accordance with this Statute with respect to the following crimes:

(a) The crime of genocide;
(b) Crimes against humanity;

(c) War crimes;

(d) The crime of aggression.

2. The Court shall exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression once a provision is adopted in accordance with articles 121 and 123 defining the crime and setting out the conditions under which the Court shall exercise jurisdiction with respect to this crime. Such a provision shall be consistent with the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

Article 6
For the purpose of this Statute, "genocide" means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article 7
Crimes against humanity
1. For the purpose of this Statute, "crime against humanity" means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:

(a) Murder;
(b) Extermination;

(c) Enslavement;

(d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;

(e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;

(f) Torture;

(g) Rape, Salman Khanual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of Salman Khanual violence of comparable gravity;

(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;

(i) Enforced disappearance of persons;

(j) The crime of apartheid;

(k) Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

2. For the purpose of paragraph 1:
(a) "Attack directed against any civilian population" means a course of conduct involving the multiple commission of acts referred to in paragraph 1 against any civilian population, pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack;
(b) "Extermination" includes the intentional infliction of conditions of life, inter alia the deprivation of access to food and medicine, calculated to bring about the destruction of part of a population;

(c) "Enslavement" means the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children;

(d) "Deportation or forcible transfer of population" means forced displacement of the persons concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from the area in which they are lawfully present, without grounds permitted under international law;

(e) "Torture" means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions;

(f) "Forced pregnancy" means the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any population or carrying out other grave violations of international law. This definition shall not in any way be interpreted as affecting national laws relating to pregnancy;

(g) "Persecution" means the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity;

(h) "The crime of apartheid" means inhumane acts of a character similar to those referred to in paragraph 1, committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime;

(i) "Enforced disappearance of persons" means the arrest, detention or abduction of persons by, or with the authorization, support or acquiescence of, a State or a political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of those persons, with the intention of removing them from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.

3. For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term "gender" refers to the two Salman Khanes, male and female, within the context of society. The term "gender" does not indicate any meaning different from the above.

Article 8
War crimes

1. The Court shall have jurisdiction in respect of war crimes in particular when committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes.

2. For the purpose of this Statute, "war crimes" means:
(a) Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely, any of the following acts against persons or property protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva Convention:
(i) Wilful killing;
(ii) Torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments;

(iii) Wilfully causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or health;

(iv) Extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly;

(v) Compelling a prisoner of war or other protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power;

(vi) Wilfully depriving a prisoner of war or other protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial;

(vii) Unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement;

(viii) Taking of hostages.

(b) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
(i) Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities;
(ii) Intentionally directing attacks against civilian objects, that is, objects which are not military objectives;

(iii) Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict;

(iv) Intentionally launching an attack in the knowledge that such attack will cause incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects or widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment which would be clearly excessive in relation to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated;

(v) Attacking or bombarding, by whatever means, towns, villages, dwellings or buildings which are undefended and which are not military objectives;

(vi) Killing or wounding a combatant who, having laid down his arms or having no longer means of defence, has surrendered at discretion;

(vii) Making improper use of a flag of truce, of the flag or of the military insignia and uniform of the enemy or of the United Nations, as well as of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury;

(viii) The transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory;

(ix) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives;

(x) Subjecting persons who are in the power of an adverse party to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person concerned nor carried out in his or her interest, and which cause death to or seriously endanger the health of such person or persons;

(xi) Killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army;

(xii) Declaring that no quarter will be given;

(xiii) Destroying or seizing the enemy's property unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war;

(xiv) Declaring abolished, suspended or inadmissible in a court of law the rights and actions of the nationals of the hostile party;

(xv) Compelling the nationals of the hostile party to take part in the operations of war directed against their own country, even if they were in the belligerent's service before the commencement of the war;

(xvi) Pillaging a town or place, even when taken by assault;

(xvii) Employing poison or poisoned weapons;

(xviii) Employing asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and all analogous liquids, materials or devices;

(xix) Employing bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions;

(xx) Employing weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare which are of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering or which are inherently indiscriminate in violation of the international law of armed conflict, provided that such weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare are the subject of a comprehensive prohibition and are included in an annex to this Statute, by an amendment in accordance with the relevant provisions set forth in articles 121 and 123;

(xxi) Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;

(xxii) Committing rape, Salman Khanual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, as defined in article 7, paragraph 2 (f), enforced sterilization, or any other form of Salman Khanual violence also constituting a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions;

(xxiii) Utilizing the presence of a civilian or other protected person to render certain points, areas or military forces immune from military operations;

(xxiv) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law;

(xxv) Intentionally using starvation of civilians as a method of warfare by depriving them of objects indispensable to their survival, including wilfully impeding relief supplies as provided for under the Geneva Conventions;

(xxvi) Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen years into the national armed forces or using them to participate actively in hostilities.

(c) In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character, serious violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely, any of the following acts committed against persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention or any other cause:

(i) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
(ii) Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;

(iii) Taking of hostages;

(iv) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all judicial guarantees which are generally recognized as indispensable.

(d) Paragraph 2 (c) applies to armed conflicts not of an international character and thus does not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence or other acts of a similar nature.
(e) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:

(i) Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities;
(ii) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law;

(iii) Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict;

(iv) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives;

(v) Pillaging a town or place, even when taken by assault;

(vi) Committing rape, Salman Khanual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, as defined in article 7, paragraph 2 (f), enforced sterilization, and any other form of Salman Khanual violence also constituting a serious violation of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions;

(vii) Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen years into armed forces or groups or using them to participate actively in hostilities;

(viii) Ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand;

(ix) Killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary;

(x) Declaring that no quarter will be given;

(xi) Subjecting persons who are in the power of another party to the conflict to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person concerned nor carried out in his or her interest, and which cause death to or seriously endanger the health of such person or persons;

(xii) Destroying or seizing the property of an adversary unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of the conflict;

(f) Paragraph 2 (e) applies to armed conflicts not of an international character and thus does not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence or other acts of a similar nature. It applies to armed conflicts that take place in the territory of a State when there is protracted armed conflict between governmental authorities and organized armed groups or between such groups.
3. Nothing in paragraph 2 (c) and (e) shall affect the responsibility of a Government to maintain or re-establish law and order in the State or to defend the unity and territorial integrity of the State, by all legitimate means.

Toms £20 posted - sizes 3-8
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[WTS] 25m sp invention T2+prod capital Edited by: general hemond on 10/05/2011 04:08:00 Edited by: general hemond on 10/05/2011 04:07:53 Edited by: general hemond on 09/05/2011 18:07:02 General Hemond Very good skill for prod and invention: all T2 and capital ship Bid Starts at 3 bil Buyout : surprise me
[WTS] 24.7M SP AMARR (OVER) Edited by: Bob Bullet on 17/05/2011 19:33:25
Miner/Research/Industry/PI 18M SPs Edited by: Tradonna on 15/05/2011 16:17:24 Tradonna Check out her Skills Here This character can be a first string player on any corporation's industrial team. She has the ability to copy,research (ME/PE) with LVL V Research, Science, and Metllurgy skills. She can use all T2 crystals has both refining skill V and refining Efficiency V. She has Exhumers V,Mining V, and Mining Upgrades IV to max her per cycle output. Skills at Level V 27 Combat Drone Operation V Drone Navigaton V Mining Drone Operation V Scout Drone Operation V Electronics V Targeting V Energy Systems Operation V Engineering V Shield Operation V Exhumers V Mass Production V Interplanetary Consolidation V Industry V Ice Harvesting V Refining V Refinery Efficiency V[ Production Efficiency V Mechanic V Science V Research V Metallurgy V Lab Op V This character delivers 10 production slots and 10 research slots on top of excellent mining skills, if you are looking to beef up your mining and industrial capabilities this character will deliver. Standard character transfer rules apply. Character has a non negative wallet, non negative security status, no assets, I will pay the transfer fee, I will receive the money. I reserve the right to rescind this Auction/Sale at any time. Auction/Sale Rules: Starting Bid 2B Reserve Withheld until Met Buy Out Make me a reasonable Offer, the sooner you offer it the more flexible I will be. Thank you for taking the time to peruse this offering.
WTS 2.8mill + 0.5mill unallocated SP = 3.3mill minmatar Trader *cheap* Edited by:...

Don't forget invoices are out ready for payment, you can make payments in your nursery, by ringing head office 01443222660 option 0 or by a bank transfer.
thank you x

D.N.A. 25/04/1953 is a D.N.A. Day

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nucleotides (guanine, adenine, thymine, and cytosine) recorded using the letters G, A, T, and C. Most DNA molecules are double-stranded helices, consisting of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, molecules with backbones made of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups (related to phosphoric acid), with the nucleobases (G, A, T, C) attached to the sugars. DNA is well-suited for biological information storage, since the DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage and the double-stranded structure provides the molecule with a built-in duplicate of the encoded information.
These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel, one backbone being 3′ (three prime) and the other 5′ (five prime). This refers to the direction the 3rd and 5th carbon on the sugar molecule is facing. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called transcription.
Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.[1] In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.[2][3][4] DNA was first identified and isolated by Friedrich Miescher and the double helix structure of DNA was first discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick. The structure of DNA of all species comprises two helical chains each coiled round the same axis, and each with a pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres) and a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometres).[5] According to another study, when measured in a particular solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 ångströms wide (2.2 to 2.6 nanometres), and one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å (0.33 nm) long.[6] Although each individual repeating unit is very small, DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions of nucleotides. For instance, the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, is approximately 220 million base pairs long.[7]
In living organisms DNA does not usually exist as a single molecule, but instead as a pair of molecules that are held tightly together.[8][9] These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix. The nucleotide repeats contain both the segment of the backbone of the molecule, which holds the chain together, and a nucleobase, which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix. A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside and a base linked to a sugar and one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide. A polymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide.[10]
The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating phosphate and sugar residues.[11] The sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, which is a pentose (five-carbon) sugar. The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings. These asymmetric bonds mean a strand of DNA has a direction. In a double helix the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other strand: the strands are antiparallel. The asymmetric ends of DNA strands are called the 5′ (five prime) and 3′ (three prime) ends, with the 5′ end having a terminal phosphate group and the 3′ end a terminal hydroxyl group. One major difference between DNA and RNA is the sugar, with the 2-deoxyribose in DNA being replaced by the alternative pentose sugar ribose in RNA.[9]

A section of DNA. The bases lie horizontally between the two spiraling strands.[12] (animated version).
The DNA double helix is stabilized primarily by two forces: hydrogen bonds between nucleotides and base-stacking interactions among aromatic nucleobases.[13] In the aqueous environment of the cell, the conjugated π bonds of nucleotide bases align perpendicular to the axis of the DNA molecule, minimizing their interaction with the solvation shell and therefore, the Gibbs free energy. The four bases found in DNA are adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the sugar/phosphate to form the complete nucleotide, as shown for adenosine monophosphate.
Nucleobase classification
The nucleobases are classified into two types: the purines, A and G, being fused five- and six-membered heterocyclic compounds, and the pyrimidines, the six-membered rings C and T.[9] A fifth pyrimidine nucleobase, uracil (U), usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. In addition to RNA and DNA a large number of artificial nucleic acid analogues have also been created to study the properties of nucleic acids, or for use in biotechnology.[14]
Uracil is not usually found in DNA, occurring only as a breakdown product of cytosine. However in a number of bacteriophages – Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages PBS1 and PBS2 and Yersinia bacteriophage piR1-37 – thymine has been replaced by uracil.[15] Base J (beta-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyluracil), a modified form of uracil, is also found in a number of organisms: the flagellates Diplonema and Euglena, and all the kinetoplastid genera[16] Biosynthesis of J occurs in two steps: in the first step a specific thymidine in DNA is converted into hydroxymethyldeoxyuridine; in the second HOMedU is glycosylated to form J.[17] Proteins that bind specifically to this base have been identified.[18][19][20] These proteins appear to be distant relatives of the Tet1 oncogene that is involved in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia.[21] J appears to act as a termination signal for RNA polymerase II.[22][23]

Major and minor grooves of DNA. Minor groove is a binding site for the dye Hoechst 33258.
Twin helical strands form the DNA backbone. Another double helix may be found tracing the spaces, or grooves, between the strands. These voids are adjacent to the base pairs and may provide a binding site. As the strands are not symmetrically located with respect to each other, the grooves are unequally sized. One groove, the major groove, is 22 Å wide and the other, the minor groove, is 12 Å wide.[24] The narrowness of the minor groove means that the edges of the bases are more accessible in the major groove. As a result, proteins like transcription factors that can bind to specific sequences in double-stranded DNA usually make contacts to the sides of the bases exposed in the major groove.[25] This situation varies in unusual conformations of DNA within the cell (see below), but the major and minor grooves are always named to reflect the differences in size that would be seen if the DNA is twisted back into the ordinary B form.
Base pairing
Further information: Base pair
In a DNA double helix, each type of nucleobase on one strand bonds with just one type of nucleobase on the other strand. This is called complementary base pairing. Here, purines form hydrogen bonds to pyrimidines, with adenine bonding only to thymine in two hydrogen bonds, and cytosine bonding only to guanine in three hydrogen bonds. This arrangement of two nucleotides binding together across the double helix is called a base pair. As hydrogen bonds are not covalent, they can be broken and rejoined relatively easily. The two strands of DNA in a double helix can therefore be pulled apart like a zipper, either by a mechanical force or high temperature.[26] As a result of this complementarity, all the information in the double-stranded sequence of a DNA helix is duplicated on each strand, which is vital in DNA replication. Indeed, this reversible and specific interaction between complementary base pairs is critical for all the functions of DNA in living organisms.[3]

Top, a GC base pair with three hydrogen bonds. Bottom, an AT base pair with two hydrogen bonds. Non-covalent hydrogen bonds between the pairs are shown as dashed lines.
The two types of base pairs form different numbers of hydrogen bonds, AT forming two hydrogen bonds, and GC forming three hydrogen bonds (see figures, right). DNA with high GC-content is more stable than DNA with low GC-content.
As noted above, most DNA molecules are actually two polymer strands, bound together in a helical fashion by noncovalent bonds; this double stranded structure (dsDNA) is maintained largely by the intrastrand base stacking interactions, which are strongest for G,C stacks. The two strands can come apart – a process known as melting – to form two ssDNA molecules. Melting occurs when conditions favor ssDNA; such conditions are high temperature, low salt and high pH (low pH also melts DNA, but since DNA is unstable due to acid depurination, low pH is rarely used).
The stability of the dsDNA form depends not only on the GC-content (% G,C basepairs) but also on sequence (since stacking is sequence specific) and also length (longer molecules are more stable). The stability can be measured in various ways; a common way is the "melting temperature", which is the temperature at which 50% of the ds molecules are converted to ss molecules; melting temperature is dependent on ionic strength and the concentration of DNA. As a result, it is both the percentage of GC base pairs and the overall length of a DNA double helix that determines the strength of the association between the two strands of DNA. Long DNA helices with a high GC-content have stronger-interacting strands, while short helices with high AT content have weaker-interacting strands.[27] In biology, parts of the DNA double helix that need to separate easily, such as the TATAAT Pribnow box in some promoters, tend to have a high AT content, making the strands easier to pull apart.[28]
In the laboratory, the strength of this interaction can be measured by finding the temperature necessary to break the hydrogen bonds, their melting temperature (also called Tm value). When all the base pairs in a DNA double helix melt, the strands separate and exist in solution as two entirely independent molecules. These single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) have no single common shape, but some conformations are more stable than others.[29]
Sense and antisense
Further information: Sense (molecular biology)
A DNA sequence is called "sense" if its sequence is the same as that of a messenger RNA copy that is translated into protein.[30] The sequence on the opposite strand is called the "antisense" sequence. Both sense and antisense sequences can exist on different parts of the same strand of DNA (i.e. both strands contain both sense and antisense sequences). In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, antisense RNA sequences are produced, but the functions of these RNAs are not entirely clear.[31] One proposal is that antisense RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through RNA-RNA base pairing.[32]
A few DNA sequences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and more in plasmids and viruses, blur the distinction between sense and antisense strands by having overlapping genes.[33] In these cases, some DNA sequences do double duty, encoding one protein when read along one strand, and a second protein when read in the opposite direction along the other strand. In bacteria, this overlap may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription,[34] while in viruses, overlapping genes increase the amount of information that can be encoded within the small viral genome.[35]
Further information: DNA supercoil
DNA can be twisted like a rope in a process called DNA supercoiling. With DNA in its "relaxed" state, a strand usually circles the axis of the double helix once every 10.4 base pairs, but if the DNA is twisted the strands become more tightly or more loosely wound.[36] If the DNA is twisted in the direction of the helix, this is positive supercoiling, and the bases are held more tightly together. If they are twisted in the opposite direction, this is negative supercoiling, and the bases come apart more easily. In nature, most DNA has slight negative supercoiling that is introduced by enzymes called topoisomerases.[37] These enzymes are also needed to relieve the twisting stresses introduced into DNA strands during processes such as transcription and DNA replication.[38]

From left to right, the structures of A, B and Z DNA
Alternate DNA structures
Further information: Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Molecular models of DNA, and DNA structure
DNA exists in many possible conformations that include A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA forms, although, only B-DNA and Z-DNA have been directly observed in functional organisms.[11] The conformation that DNA adopts depends on the hydration level, DNA sequence, the amount and direction of supercoiling, chemical modifications of the bases, the type and concentration of metal ions, as well as the presence of polyamines in solution.[39]
The first published reports of A-DNA X-ray diffraction patterns— and also B-DNA — used analyses based on Patterson transforms that provided only a limited amount of structural information for oriented fibers of DNA.[40][41] An alternate analysis was then proposed by Wilkins et al., in 1953, for the in vivo B-DNA X-ray diffraction/scattering patterns of highly hydrated DNA fibers in terms of squares of Bessel functions.[42] In the same journal, James Watson and Francis Crick presented their molecular modeling analysis of the DNA X-ray diffraction patterns to suggest that the structure was a double-helix.[5]
Although the `B-DNA form' is most common under the conditions found in cells,[43] it is not a well-defined conformation but a family of related DNA conformations[44] that occur at the high hydration levels present in living cells. Their corresponding X-ray diffraction and scattering patterns are characteristic of molecular paracrystals with a significant degree of disorder.[45][46]
Compared to B-DNA, the A-DNA form is a wider right-handed spiral, with a shallow, wide minor groove and a narrower, deeper major groove. The A form occurs under non-physiological conditions in partially dehydrated samples of DNA, while in the cell it may be produced in hybrid pairings of DNA and RNA strands, as well as in enzyme-DNA complexes.[47][48] Segments of DNA where the bases have been chemically modified by methylation may undergo a larger change in conformation and adopt the Z form. Here, the strands turn about the helical axis in a left-handed spiral, the opposite of the more common B form.[49] These unusual structures can be recognized by specific Z-DNA binding proteins and may be involved in the regulation of transcription.[50]
Alternate DNA chemistry
For a number of years exobiologists have proposed the existence of a shadow biosphere, a postulated microbial biosphere of Earth that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life. One of the proposals was the existence of lifeforms that use arsenic instead of phosphorus in DNA. A report in 2010 of the possibility in the bacterium GFAJ-1, was announced,[51][51][52] though the research was disputed,[52][53] and evidence suggests the bacterium actively prevents the incorporation of arsenic into the DNA backbone and other biomolecules.[54]
Quadruplex structures
Further information: G-quadruplex
At the ends of the linear chromosomes are specialized regions of DNA called telomeres. The main function of these regions is to allow the cell to replicate chromosome ends using the enzyme telomerase, as the enzymes that normally replicate DNA cannot copy the extreme 3′ ends of chromosomes.[55] These specialized chromosome caps also help protect the DNA ends, and stop the DNA repair systems in the cell from treating them as damage to be corrected.[56] In human cells, telomeres are usually lengths of single-stranded DNA containing several thousand repeats of a simple TTAGGG sequence.[57]

DNA quadruplex formed by telomere repeats. The looped conformation of the DNA backbone is very different from the typical DNA helix.[58]
These guanine-rich sequences may stabilize chromosome ends by forming structures of stacked sets of four-base units, rather than the usual base pairs found in other DNA molecules. Here, four guanine bases form a flat plate and these flat four-base units then stack on top of each other, to form a stable G-quadruplex structure.[59] These structures are stabilized by hydrogen bonding between the edges of the bases and chelation of a metal ion in the centre of each four-base unit.[60] Other structures can also be formed, with the central set of four bases coming from either a single strand folded around the bases, or several different parallel strands, each contributing one base to the central structure.
In addition to these stacked structures, telomeres also form large loop structures called telomere loops, or T-loops. Here, the single-stranded DNA curls around in a long circle stabilized by telomere-binding proteins.[61] At the very end of the T-loop, the single-stranded telomere DNA is held onto a region of double-stranded DNA by the telomere strand disrupting the double-helical DNA and base pairing to one of the two strands. This triple-stranded structure is called a displacement loop or D-loop.[59]

Single branch Multiple branches
Branched DNA can form networks containing multiple branches.
Branched DNA
Further information: Branched DNA and DNA nanotechnology
In DNA fraying occurs when non-complementary regions exist at the end of an otherwise complementary double-strand of DNA. However, branched DNA can occur if a third strand of DNA is introduced and contains adjoining regions able to hybridize with the frayed regions of the pre-existing double-strand. Although the simplest example of branched DNA involves only three strands of DNA, complexes involving additional strands and multiple branches are also possible.[62] Branched DNA can be used in nanotechnology to construct geometric shapes, see the section on uses in technology below.
DNA may carry out low-frequency collective motion as observed by the Raman spectroscopy[63][64] and analyzed with a quasi-continuum model.[65][66]
Chemical modifications and altered DNA packaging

cytosine 5-methylcytosine thymine
Structure of cytosine with and without the 5-methyl group. Deamination converts 5-methylcytosine into thymine.
Base modifications and DNA packaging
Further information: DNA methylation, Chromatin remodeling
The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin. Base modifications can be involved in packaging, with regions that have low or no gene expression usually containing high levels of methylation of cytosine bases. DNA packaging and its influence on gene expression can also occur by covalent modifications of the histone protein core around which DNA is wrapped in the chromatin structure or else by remodeling carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (see Chromatin remodeling). There is, further, crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification, so they can coordinately affect chromatin and gene expression.[67]
For one example, cytosine methylation, produces 5-methylcytosine, which is important for X-chromosome inactivation.[68] The average level of methylation varies between organisms – the worm Caenorhabditis elegans lacks cytosine methylation, while vertebrates have higher levels, with up to 1% of their DNA containing 5-methylcytosine.[69] Despite the importance of 5-methylcytosine, it can deaminate to leave a thymine base, so methylated cytosines are particularly prone to mutations.[70] Other base modifications include adenine methylation in bacteria, the presence of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the brain,[71] and the glycosylation of uracil to produce the "J-base" in kinetoplastids.[72][73]
Further information: DNA damage (naturally occurring), Mutation, DNA damage theory of aging

A covalent adduct between a metabolically activated form of benzo[a]pyrene, the major mutagen in tobacco smoke, and DNA[74]
DNA can be damaged by many sorts of mutagens, which change the DNA sequence. Mutagens include oxidizing agents, alkylating agents and also high-energy electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light and X-rays. The type of DNA damage produced depends on the type of mutagen. For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimers, which are cross-links between pyrimidine bases.[75] On the other hand, oxidants such as free radicals or hydrogen peroxide produce multiple forms of damage, including base modifications, particularly of guanosine, and double-strand breaks.[76] A typical human cell contains about 150,000 bases that have suffered oxidative damage.[77] Of these oxidative lesions, the most dangerous are double-strand breaks, as these are difficult to repair and can produce point mutations, insertions and deletions from the DNA sequence, as well as chromosomal translocations.[78] These mutations can cause cancer. Because of inherent limitations in the DNA repair mechanisms, if humans lived long enough, they would all eventually develop cancer.[79][80] DNA damages that are naturally occurring, due to normal cellular processes that produce reactive oxygen species, the hydrolytic activities of cellular water, etc., also occur frequently. Although most of these damages are repaired, in any cell some DNA damage may remain despite the action of repair processes. These remaining DNA damages accumulate with age in mammalian postmitotic tissues. This accumulation appears to be an important underlying cause of aging.[81][82][83]
Many mutagens fit into the space between two adjacent base pairs, this is called intercalation. Most intercalators are aromatic and planar molecules; examples include ethidium bromide, acridines, daunomycin, and doxorubicin. For an intercalator to fit between base pairs, the bases must separate, distorting the DNA strands by unwinding of the double helix. This inhibits both transcription and DNA replication, causing toxicity and mutations.[84] As a result, DNA intercalators may be carcinogens, and in the case of thalidomide, a teratogen.[85] Others such as benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and aflatoxin form DNA adducts that induce errors in replication.[86] Nevertheless, due to their ability to inhibit DNA transcription and replication, other similar toxins are also used in chemotherapy to inhibit rapidly growing cancer cells.[87]
Biological functions

DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome; the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes.[88] The information carried by DNA is held in the sequence of pieces of DNA called genes. Transmission of genetic information in genes is achieved via complementary base pairing. For example, in transcription, when a cell uses the information in a gene, the DNA sequence is copied into a complementary RNA sequence through the attraction between the DNA and the correct RNA nucleotides. Usually, this RNA copy is then used to make a matching protein sequence in a process called translation, which depends on the same interaction between RNA nucleotides. In alternative fashion, a cell may simply copy its genetic information in a process called DNA replication. The details of these functions are covered in other articles; here we focus on the interactions between DNA and other molecules that mediate the function of the genome.
Genes and genomes
Further information: Cell nucleus, Chromatin, Chromosome, Gene, Noncoding DNA
Genomic DNA is tightly and orderly packed in the process called DNA condensation to fit the small available volumes of the cell. In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the cell nucleus, as well as small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid.[89] The genetic information in a genome is held within genes, and the complete set of this information in an organism is called its genotype. A gene is a unit of heredity and is a region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes contain an open reading frame that can be transcribed, as well as regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancers, which control the transcription of the open reading frame.
In many species, only a small fraction of the total sequence of the genome encodes protein. For example, only about 1.5% of the human genome consists of protein-coding exons, with over 50% of human DNA consisting of non-coding repetitive sequences.[90] The reasons for the presence of so much noncoding DNA in eukaryotic genomes and the extraordinary differences in genome size, or C-value, among species represent a long-standing puzzle known as the "C-value enigma".[91] However, some DNA sequences that do not code protein may still encode functional non-coding RNA molecules, which are involved in the regulation of gene expression.[92]

T7 RNA polymerase (blue) producing a mRNA (green) from a DNA template (orange).[93]
Some noncoding DNA sequences play structural roles in chromosomes. Telomeres and centromeres typically contain few genes, but are important for the function and stability of chromosomes.[56][94] An abundant form of noncoding DNA in humans are pseudogenes, which are copies of genes that have been disabled by mutation.[95] These sequences are usually just molecular fossils, although they can occasionally serve as raw genetic material for the creation of new genes through the process of gene duplication and divergence.[96]
Transcription and translation
Further information: Genetic code, Transcription (genetics), Protein biosynthesis
A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains genetic information and can influence the phenotype of an organism. Within a gene, the sequence of bases along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which then defines one or more protein sequences. The relationship between the nucleotide sequences of genes and the amino-acid sequences of proteins is determined by the rules of translation, known collectively as the genetic code. The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons formed from a sequence of three nucleotides (e.g. ACT, CAG, TTT).
In transcription, the codons of a gene are copied into messenger RNA by RNA polymerase. This RNA copy is then decoded by a ribosome that reads the RNA sequence by base-pairing the messenger RNA to transfer RNA, which carries amino acids. Since there are 4 bases in 3-letter combinations, there are 64 possible codons ( combinations). These encode the twenty standard amino acids, giving most amino acids more than one possible codon. There are also three 'stop' or 'nonsense' codons signifying the end of the coding region; these are the TAA, TGA and TAG codons.

DNA replication. The double helix is unwound by a helicase and topoisomerase. Next, one DNA polymerase produces the leading strand copy. Another DNA polymerase binds to the lagging strand. This enzyme makes discontinuous segments (called Okazaki fragments) before DNA ligase joins them together.
Further information: DNA replication
Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that the two daughter cells have the same genetic information as their parent. The double-stranded structure of DNA provides a simple mechanism for DNA replication. Here, the two strands are separated and then each strand's complementary DNA sequence is recreated by an enzyme called DNA polymerase. This enzyme makes the complementary strand by finding the correct base through complementary base pairing, and bonding it onto the original strand. As DNA polymerases can only extend a DNA strand in a 5′ to 3′ direction, different mechanisms are used to copy the antiparallel strands of the double helix.[97] In this way, the base on the old strand dictates which base appears on the new strand, and the cell ends up with a perfect copy of its DNA.
Interactions with proteins

All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be non-specific, or the protein can bind specifically to a single DNA sequence. Enzymes can also bind to DNA and of these, the polymerases that copy the DNA base sequence in transcription and DNA replication are particularly important.
DNA-binding proteins
Further information: DNA-binding protein

Interaction of DNA (shown in orange) with histones (shown in blue). These proteins' basic amino acids bind to the acidic phosphate groups on DNA.
Structural proteins that bind DNA are well-understood examples of non-specific DNA-protein interactions. Within chromosomes, DNA is held in complexes with structural proteins. These proteins organize the DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. In eukaryotes this structure involves DNA binding to a complex of small basic proteins called histones, while in prokaryotes multiple types of proteins are involved.[98][99] The histones form a disk-shaped complex called a nucleosome, which contains two complete turns of double-stranded DNA wrapped around its surface. These non-specific interactions are formed through basic residues in the histones making ionic bonds to the acidic sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, and are therefore largely independent of the base sequence.[100] Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation.[101] These chemical changes alter the strength of the interaction between the DNA and the histones, making the DNA more or less accessible to transcription factors and changing the rate of transcription.[102] Other non-specific DNA-binding proteins in chromatin include the high-mobility group proteins, which bind to bent or distorted DNA.[103] These proteins are important in bending arrays of nucleosomes and arranging them into the larger structures that make up chromosomes.[104]
A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins are the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, replication protein A is the best-understood member of this family and is used in processes where the double helix is separated, including DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair.[105] These binding proteins seem to stabilize single-stranded DNA and protect it from forming stem-loops or being degraded by nucleases.

The lambda repressor helix-turn-helix transcription factor bound to its DNA target[106]
In contrast, other proteins have evolved to bind to particular DNA sequences. The most intensively studied of these are the various transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate transcription. Each transcription factor binds to one particular set of DNA sequences and activates or inhibits the transcription of genes that have these sequences close to their promoters. The transcription factors do this in two ways. Firstly, they can bind the RNA polymerase responsible for transcription, either directly or through other mediator proteins; this locates the polymerase at the promoter and allows it to begin transcription.[107] Alternatively, transcription factors can bind enzymes that modify the histones at the promoter. This changes the accessibility of the DNA template to the polymerase.[108]
As these DNA targets can occur throughout an organism's genome, changes in the activity of one type of transcription factor can affect thousands of genes.[109] Consequently, these proteins are often the targets of the signal transduction processes that control responses to environmental changes or cellular differentiation and development. The specificity of these transcription factors' interactions with DNA come from the proteins making multiple contacts to the edges of the DNA bases, allowing them to "read" the DNA sequence. Most of these base-interactions are made in the major groove, where the bases are most accessible.[25]

The restriction enzyme EcoRV (green) in a complex with its substrate DNA[110]
DNA-modifying enzymes
Nucleases and ligases
Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA strands by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds. Nucleases that hydrolyse nucleotides from the ends of DNA strands are called exonucleases, while endonucleases cut within strands. The most frequently used nucleases in molecular biology are the restriction endonucleases, which cut DNA at specific sequences. For instance, the EcoRV enzyme shown to the left recognizes the 6-base sequence 5′-GATATC-3′ and makes a cut at the vertical line. In nature, these enzymes protect bacteria against phage infection by digesting the phage DNA when it enters the bacterial cell, acting as part of the restriction modification system.[111] In technology, these sequence-specific nucleases are used in molecular cloning and DNA fingerprinting.
Enzymes called DNA ligases can rejoin cut or broken DNA strands.[112] Ligases are particularly important in lagging strand DNA replication, as they join together the short segments of DNA produced at the replication fork into a complete copy of the DNA template. They are also used in DNA repair and genetic recombination.[112]
Topoisomerases and helicases
Topoisomerases are enzymes with both nuclease and ligase activity. These proteins change the amount of supercoiling in DNA. Some of these enzymes work by cutting the DNA helix and allowing one section to rotate, thereby reducing its level of supercoiling; the enzyme then seals the DNA break.[37] Other types of these enzymes are capable of cutting one DNA helix and then passing a second strand of DNA through this break, before rejoining the helix.[113] Topoisomerases are required for many processes involving DNA, such as DNA replication and transcription.[38]
Helicases are proteins that are a type of molecular motor. They use the chemical energy in nucleoside triphosphates, predominantly ATP, to break hydrogen bonds between bases and unwind the DNA double helix into single strands.[114] These enzymes are essential for most processes where enzymes need to access the DNA bases.
Polymerases are enzymes that synthesize polynucleotide chains from nucleoside triphosphates. The sequence of their products are copies of existing polynucleotide chains—which are called templates. These enzymes function by adding nucleotides onto the 3′ hydroxyl group of the previous nucleotide in a DNA strand. As a consequence, all polymerases work in a 5′ to 3′ direction.[115] In the active site of these enzymes, the incoming nucleoside triphosphate base-pairs to the template: this allows polymerases to accurately synthesize the complementary strand of their template. Polymerases are classified according to the type of template that they use.
In DNA replication, a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase makes a copy of a DNA sequence. Accuracy is vital in this process, so many of these polymerases have a proofreading activity. Here, the polymerase recognizes the occasional mistakes in the synthesis reaction by the lack of base pairing between the mismatched nucleotides. If a mismatch is detected, a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity is activated and the incorrect base removed.[116] In most organisms, DNA polymerases function in a large complex called the replisome that contains multiple accessory subunits, such as the DNA clamp or helicases.[117]
RNA-dependent DNA polymerases are a specialized class of polymerases that copy the sequence of an RNA strand into DNA. They include reverse transcriptase, which is a viral enzyme involved in the infection of cells by retroviruses, and telomerase, which is required for the replication of telomeres.[55][118] Telomerase is an unusual polymerase because it contains its own RNA template as part of its structure.[56]
Transcription is carried out by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the sequence of a DNA strand into RNA. To begin transcribing a gene, the RNA polymerase binds to a sequence of DNA called a promoter and separates the DNA strands. It then copies the gene sequence into a messenger RNA transcript until it reaches a region of DNA called the terminator, where it halts and detaches from the DNA. As with human DNA-dependent DNA polymerases, RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that transcribes most of the genes in the human genome, operates as part of a large protein complex with multiple regulatory and accessory subunits.[119]
Genetic recombination

Structure of the Holliday junction intermediate in genetic recombination. The four separate DNA strands are coloured red, blue, green and yellow.[120]
Further information: Genetic recombination

Recombination involves the breakage and rejoining of two chromosomes (M and F) to produce two re-arranged chromosomes (C1 and C2).
A DNA helix usually does not interact with other segments of DNA, and in human cells the different chromosomes even occupy separate areas in the nucleus called "chromosome territories".[121] This physical separation of different chromosomes is important for the ability of DNA to function as a stable repository for information, as one of the few times chromosomes interact is during chromosomal crossover when they recombine. Chromosomal crossover is when two DNA helices break, swap a section and then rejoin.
Recombination allows chromosomes to exchange genetic information and produces new combinations of genes, which increases the efficiency of natural selection and can be important in the rapid evolution of new proteins.[122] Genetic recombination can also be involved in DNA repair, particularly in the cell's response to double-strand breaks.[123]
The most common form of chromosomal crossover is homologous recombination, where the two chromosomes involved share very similar sequences. Non-homologous recombination can be damaging to cells, as it can produce chromosomal translocations and genetic abnormalities. The recombination reaction is catalyzed by enzymes known as recombinases, such as RAD51.[124] The first step in recombination is a double-stranded break caused by either an endonuclease or damage to the DNA.[125] A series of steps catalyzed in part by the recombinase then leads to joining of the two helices by at least one Holliday junction, in which a segment of a single strand in each helix is annealed to the complementary strand in the other helix. The Holliday junction is a tetrahedral junction structure that can be moved along the pair of chromosomes, swapping one strand for another. The recombination reaction is then halted by cleavage of the junction and re-ligation of the released DNA.[126]

Further information: RNA world hypothesis
DNA contains the genetic information that allows all modern living things to function, grow and reproduce. However, it is unclear how long in the 4-billion-year history of life DNA has performed this function, as it has been proposed that the earliest forms of life may have used RNA as their genetic material.[127][128] RNA may have acted as the central part of early cell metabolism as it can both transmit genetic information and carry out catalysis as part of ribozymes.[129] This ancient RNA world where nucleic acid would have been used for both catalysis and genetics may have influenced the evolution of the current genetic code based on four nucleotide bases. This would occur, since the number of different bases in such an organism is a trade-off between a small number of bases increasing replication accuracy and a large number of bases increasing the catalytic efficiency of ribozymes.[130]
However, there is no direct evidence of ancient genetic systems, as recovery of DNA from most fossils is impossible. This is because DNA survives in the environment for less than one million years, and slowly degrades into short fragments in solution.[131] Claims for older DNA have been made, most notably a report of the isolation of a viable bacterium from a salt crystal 250 million years old,[132] but these claims are controversial.[133][134]
On 8 August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting building blocks of DNA (adenine, guanine and related organic molecules) may have been formed extraterrestrially in outer space.[135][136][137]
Uses in technology

Genetic engineering
Further information: Molecular biology, nucleic acid methods and genetic engineering
Methods have been developed to purify DNA from organisms, such as phenol-chloroform extraction, and to manipulate it in the laboratory, such as restriction digests and the polymerase chain reaction. Modern biology and biochemistry make intensive use of these techniques in recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is a man-made DNA sequence that has been assembled from other DNA sequences. They can be transformed into organisms in the form of plasmids or in the appropriate format, by using a viral vector.[138] The genetically modified organisms produced can be used to produce products such as recombinant proteins, used in medical research,[139] or be grown in agriculture.[140][141]
Further information: DNA profiling
Forensic scientists can use DNA in blood, semen, skin, saliva or hair found at a crime scene to identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator. This process is formally termed DNA profiling, but may also be called "genetic fingerprinting". In DNA profiling, the lengths of variable sections of repetitive DNA, such as short tandem repeats and minisatellites, are compared between people. This method is usually an extremely reliable technique for identifying a matching DNA.[142] However, identification can be complicated if the scene is contaminated with DNA from several people.[143] DNA profiling was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys,[144] and first used in forensic science to convict Colin Pitchfork in the 1988 Enderby murders case.[145]
The development of forensic science, and the ability to now obtain genetic matching on minute samples of blood, skin, saliva or hair has led to a re-examination of a number of cases. Evidence can now be uncovered that was not scientifically possible at the time of the original examination. Combined with the removal of the double jeopardy law in some places, this can allow cases to be reopened where previous trials have failed to produce sufficient evidence to convince a jury. People charged with serious crimes may be required to provide a sample of DNA for matching purposes. The most obvious defence to DNA matches obtained forensically is to claim that cross-contamination of evidence has taken place. This has resulted in meticulous strict handling procedures with new cases of serious crime. DNA profiling is also used to identify victims of mass casualty incidents.[146] As well as positively identifying bodies or body parts in serious accidents, DNA profiling is being successfully used to identify individual victims in mass war graves – matching to family members.
Further information: Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics involves the manipulation, searching, and data mining of biological data, and this includes DNA sequence data. The development of techniques to store and search DNA sequences have led to widely applied advances in computer science, especially string searching algorithms, machine learning and database theory.[147] String searching or matching algorithms, which find an occurrence of a sequence of letters inside a larger sequence of letters, were developed to search for specific sequences of nucleotides.[148] The DNA sequence may be aligned with other DNA sequences to identify homologous sequences and locate the specific mutations that make them distinct. These techniques, especially multiple sequence alignment, are used in studying phylogenetic relationships and protein function.[149] Data sets representing entire genomes' worth of DNA sequences, such as those produced by the Human Genome Project, are difficult to use without the annotations that identify the locations of genes and regulatory elements on each chromosome. Regions of DNA sequence that have the characteristic patterns associated with protein- or RNA-coding genes can be identified by gene finding algorithms, which allow researchers to predict the presence of particular gene products and their possible functions in an organism even before they have been isolated experimentally.[150] Entire genomes may also be compared, which can shed light on the evolutionary history of particular organism and permit the examination of complex evolutionary events.
DNA nanotechnology

The DNA structure at left (schematic shown) will self-assemble into the structure visualized by atomic force microscopy at right. DNA nanotechnology is the field that seeks to design nanoscale structures using the molecular recognition properties of DNA molecules. Image from Strong, 2004.
Further information: DNA nanotechnology
DNA nanotechnology uses the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create self-assembling branched DNA complexes with useful properties.[151] DNA is thus used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of biological information. This has led to the creation of two-dimensional periodic lattices (both tile-based as well as using the "DNA origami" method) as well as three-dimensional structures in the shapes of polyhedra.[152] Nanomechanical devices and algorithmic self-assembly have also been demonstrated,[153] and these DNA structures have been used to template the arrangement of other molecules such as gold nanoparticles and streptavidin proteins.[154]
History and anthropology
Further information: Phylogenetics and Genetic genealogy
Because DNA collects mutations over time, which are then inherited, it contains historical information, and, by comparing DNA sequences, geneticists can infer the evolutionary history of organisms, their phylogeny.[155] This field of phylogenetics is a powerful tool in evolutionary biology. If DNA sequences within a species are compared, population geneticists can learn the history of particular populations. This can be used in studies ranging from ecological genetics to anthropology; For example, DNA evidence is being used to try to identify the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.[156][157]
DNA has also been used to look at modern family relationships, such as establishing family relationships between the descendants of Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson. This usage is closely related to the use of DNA in criminal investigations detailed above. Indeed, some criminal investigations have been solved when DNA from crime scenes has matched relatives of the guilty individual.[158]
Information storage
Main article: DNA digital data storage
In a paper published in Nature in January, 2013, scientists from the European Bioinformatics Institute and Agilent Technologies proposed a mechanism to use DNA's ability to code information as a means of digital data storage. The group was able to encode 739 kilobytes of data into DNA code, synthesize the actual DNA, then sequence the DNA and decode the information back to its original form, with a reported 100% accuracy. The encoded information consisted of text files and audio files. A prior experiment was published in August 2012. It was conducted by researchers at Harvard University, where the text of a 54,000-word book was encoded in DNA.[159][160]
History of DNA research

Further information: History of molecular biology

James Watson and Francis Crick (right), co-originators of the double-helix model, with Maclyn McCarty (left).
DNA was first isolated by the Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher who, in 1869, discovered a microscopic substance in the pus of discarded surgical bandages. As it resided in the nuclei of cells, he called it "nuclein".[161] In 1878, Albrecht Kossel isolated the non-protein component of "nuclein", nucleic acid, and later isolated its five primary nucleobases.[162] In 1919, Phoebus Levene identified the base, sugar and phosphate nucleotide unit.[163] Levene suggested that DNA consisted of a string of nucleotide units linked together through the phosphate groups. However, Levene thought the chain was short and the bases repeated in a fixed order. In 1937 William Astbury produced the first X-ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.[164]
In 1927, Nikolai Koltsov proposed that inherited traits would be inherited via a "giant hereditary molecule" made up of "two mirror strands that would replicate in a semi-conservative fashion using each strand as a template".[165] In 1928, Frederick Griffith discovered that traits of the "smooth" form of Pneumococcus could be transferred to the "rough" form of the same bacteria by mixing killed "smooth" bacteria with the live "rough" form.[166] This system provided the first clear suggestion that DNA carries genetic information—the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment—when Oswald Avery, along with coworkers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty, identified DNA as the transforming principle in 1943.[167] DNA's role in heredity was confirmed in 1952, when Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase in the Hershey–Chase experiment showed that DNA is the genetic material of the T2 phage.[168]
In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first correct double-helix model of DNA structure in the journal Nature.[5] Their double-helix, molecular model of DNA was then based on a single X-ray diffraction image (labeled as "Photo 51")[169] taken by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling in May 1952, as well as the information that the DNA bases are paired — also obtained through private communications from Erwin Chargaff in the previous years. Chargaff's rules played a very important role in establishing double-helix configurations for B-DNA as well as A-DNA.
Experimental evidence supporting the Watson and Crick model was published in a series of five articles in the same issue of Nature.[170] Of these, Franklin and Gosling's paper was the first publication of their own X-ray diffraction data and original analysis method that partially supported the Watson and Crick model;[41][171] this issue also contained an article on DNA structure by Maurice Wilkins and two of his colleagues, whose analysis and in vivo B-DNA X-ray patterns also supported the presence in vivo of the double-helical DNA configurations as proposed by Crick and Watson for their double-helix molecular model of DNA in the previous two pages of Nature.[42] In 1962, after Franklin's death, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[172] Nobel Prizes were awarded only to living recipients at the time. A debate continues about who should receive credit for the discovery.[173]
In an influential presentation in 1957, Crick laid out the central dogma of molecular biology, which foretold the relationship between DNA, RNA, and proteins, and articulated the "adaptor hypothesis".[174] Final confirmation of the replication mechanism that was implied by the double-helical structure followed in 1958 through the Meselson–Stahl experiment.[175] Further work by Crick and coworkers showed that the genetic code was based on non-overlapping triplets of bases, called codons, allowing Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg to decipher the genetic code.[176] These findings represent the birth of molecular biology.